The beneficial effects of Ashwagandha and Bacopa

Ayurvedic medicine and philosophy has been around for over 3000 years and herbs have been part of this therapy for centuries. Herbs such as Ashwagandha and Bacopa Monnieri have been a robust part of this Ayurvedic medicine for this time and are traditionally used as a Rasayana (tonic) for their wide-ranging health benefits. Rasayana is described as an herbal or metallic preparation that promotes a youthful state of physical and mental health and expands happiness.

They are used particularly for supporting anxiety, depression and also cognitive health. These benefits have been long ignored by western medicine, however research is beginning to highlight the beneficial functions of these plants and support the long term Ayurvedic use for them particularly for nervous and cognitive support.

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Ashwagandha or Withania somnifera is very revered herb of the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine and is used for various kinds of disease processes especially as a nervine tonic. Its main use currently, within Nutritional Therapy, is as an adaptogen, this means that it is able to support the body adapting to environmental and physiological changes, specifically stress on the body. Studies also indicate Ashwagandha possesses anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-stress, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hemopoietic, and rejuvenating properties.

Effect on stress

Recent studies have shown that Ashwagandha enhances the body’s resilience to stress; in experimental models, it increases the stamina of rats during swimming endurance test and prevents adrenal gland changes of ascorbic acid and cortisol content produced by swimming stress. Therefore it is useful for supporting and protecting adrenal function in periods of stress.

It is thought that Ashwagandha is useful for adrenal dysfunction (there is an imbalance of stress hormones either too high or too low due to prolonged stressful periods). Studies have shown that Ashwagandha can:

  • Prevent decrease of adrenal cortisol and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) which occurs due to stress.
  • Be useful in the prevention of stress-induced ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract
  • Significantly increase in the body weights of Ashwagandha treated rats as compared to control for a period of 3 months
  • In a human randomised control trial, it was shown that Ashwagandha root extract can be used for body weight management in adults under chronic stress (Chowdry et al, 2017)

Nervous system and cognitive health

There are dozens of studies that show that Ashwagandha slows, stops, reverses or removes neuronal atrophy and synaptic loss. Research has specifically demonstrated:

  • Ashwagandha, its constituents and the metabolites of its constituents promote the growth of nerves after taking it for 7 days
  • Appears to mimic the neurotransmitter GABA and therefore may promote calm and restful sleep
  • Derivatives have been shown to increase cholinergic activity, stimulate neurite outgrowth and regenerate both axon and dendrites, therefore promoting neuronal growth
  • methanol extract of Ashwagandha showed neurite outgrowth-promoting activity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells
  • Ashwagandha extract promotes Aβ clearance in the brain via upregulation of liver LRP
  • Memory improvement; root extract ameliorated hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment and neurodegeneration in hippocampus through NO mediated modulation of corticosterone levels

These capabilities suggest that Ashwagandha may be extremely useful in the protection and modulation of cognitive disease.


The neuroprotective effects of Ashwagandha may also be due, somewhat, in its antioxidant capabilities. It had been shown that Ashwagandha can increase levels of the antioxidants Super oxide Dismutase, Catalase and Glutathione within the brain of rats and therefore can potentially have an antioxidant effect in the brain which may be responsible for its diverse pharmacological properties.


Ashwagandha has effectively been used in a variety of rheumatological conditions, its success is in part due to its anti-inflammatory properties. In vivio studies have shown that administration of Ashwagandha resulted in a reduction of the inflammatory serum proteins a2-glycoprotein, pre-albumin and a2-macroglobulin. The anti-oxidant properties will also be beneficial for modulating inflammation.

Immune Modulating

Ashwagandha’s general use as a tonic may be attributed to the effect that it has on the immune system. Studies have shown that:

  • Mobilisation and activation of macrophages, phagocytosis and increased activity of lysosomal enzymes.
  • Significant increases in hemolytic antibody responses towards human erythrocytes.
  • A significant increase in hemoglobin concentration (P < 0.01), red blood cell count (P < 0.01), white blood cell count (P < 0.05), platelet count (P < 0.01), and body weight (P < 0.05) was observed in Ashwagandha-treated mice
  • A significant modulation of immune reactivity was observed in all the three animal models used. Ashwagandha prevented myelosuppression in mice treated with all three immunosuppressive drugs tested (Ziauddin et al, 1996)

Muscle strength

Another recent clinical trial was conducted to investigate the effects of Ashwagandha root extract consumption on muscle mass and strength in healthy young men engaged in resistance training. It was concluded that Ashwagandha supplementation is associated with significant increases in muscle mass and strength and suggests that Ashwagandha supplementation may be useful in conjunction with a resistance training program. Therefore, it may be very useful as part of a sports nutrition support. This is likely to be due to its ability as an adaptogen and therefore increasing the body’s resistance to stress created by intense training.

Bacopa Monnieri

Bacopa Monnieri (BM) also known as brahmi, is a creeping perennial with small oblong leaves and purple flowers, found in warm wetlands, and native to Australia and India. It is another Ayurvedic herb which has been used traditionally as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. Again, these traditional uses are now becoming supported by recent studies and current research is supporting its anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective activity.

Bacopa contains many different active chemical constituents including steroidal saponins and Bacosides A and B, it is thought that these are the molecules involved in improving both learning and memory. Other constituents include bacopasaponins D, E and F as well as alkaloids, flavonoids, and phytosterols.

The functions and therefore potential therapeutic uses for Bacopa Monnieri will be discussed below.

Neuroprotection and cognitive health

As with Ashwagandha, Bacopa has been shown to have a significant effect on the protection of the brain and nervous system as well and improvement in cognitive performance. Bacosides within Bacopa are believed to repair damaged neurons by enhancing kinase activity and neuronal synthesis contributing to the restoration of synaptic activity, leading to improvement of nerve impulse transmission. Emerging research demonstrates several further mechanisms of action by which Bacopa Monnieri may support cognitive function including;

  • Acetylcholinesterase inhibition (this can prevent b-amyloid induced cell death)
  • Choline acetyltransferase activation
  • β-amyloid reduction and removal of amyloid deposits (pathology of Alzheimer’s disease)
  • Increased cerebral blood flow, increased nutrients and removal of waste products aiding over all brain health.
  • Monoamine (neurotransmitter) potentiation, therefore improving communication within brain cells

All of these factors are involved in reduction of risk for cognitive diseases including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease and dementia. Therefore, Bacopa may be a useful therapy in the prevention and modulation of cognitive disease.

Antioxidant neuroprotection

Inflamamtion and oxidative stress have long been considered drivers of cognitive decline and supporting anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activity within the brain is really important in helping to maintain long term cognitive wellness. Many of the constituents of Bacopa are lipophilic and therefore have the ability to cross the blood brain barrier.

Studies have demonstrated that Bacopa Monnieri has the ability to increase antioxidant levels (glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase and Vitamins C, E and A) and that they independently decrease lipid peroxidation (oxidation and therefore damage to fat i.e. cell membranes) within the brain, therefore contributing to neuroprotection.

Bacopa has also shown anti-inflammatory as well as heavy metal chelation capabilities and can therefore be involved in the removal of heavy metals from the body which can lead to increased oxidative stress and inflammation, again providing further protection to cognition and the nervous system.

Learning and memory

Human control trials have shown that there is evidence that Bacopa may improve memory “There is some evidence to suggest that Bacopa improves memory free recall with evidence for enhancement in other cognitive abilities”. (Pace et al, 2012)

A study in 2014 also showed that Bacopa may be useful for patients with ADHA, the clinical trial showed improvements learning problems, impulsivity, and psychiatric problems in significant percentages of the group. “Standardized extract of B monnieri was found to be effective in alleviating the symptoms of ADHD and was well-tolerated by the children”. (Dave et al, 2014)

It can be seen that both Ashwagandha and Bacopa Monnieri have multiple actions on many aspects of heath particularly cognitive function as well as improving resistance to stress due to their adaptogenic qualities. Many of the human studies have so far been small but there is growing interest in gaining further understanding as to how these herbs can be unlisted for promoting wellness and attenuating cognitive decline.

Key Takeaways

  • Both Bacopa Monnieri and Ashwagandha have adaptogenic properties, therefore improving the body’s resistance to stress, leading to numerous health benefits.
  • Both possess antioxidant capabilities and have been shown to improve antioxidant activity within the brain
  • Both possess neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties and may also stimulation neuronal growth
  • Bacopa Monnieri has been associated with improved memory and can been shown to be useful for patients with ADHD

If you have any questions regarding the topics that have been raised, or any other health matters please do contact me (Helen) by email at any time.

Helen Drake and the Cytoplan Editorial Team


Calabrese C1, Gregory WL, Leo M, Kraemer D, Bone K, Oken B. Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jul;14(6):707-13. doi: 10.1089/acm.2008.0018.

Dar NJ1,2,3, Hamid A2,3, Ahmad M4,5. Pharmacologic overview of Withania somnifera, the Indian Ginseng. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015 Dec;72(23):4445-60. doi: 10.1007/s00018-015-2012-1. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Kongkeaw C1, Dilokthornsakul P2, Thanarangsarit P3, Limpeanchob N3, Norman Scholfield C4. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on cognitive effects of Bacopa monnieri extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;151(1):528-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.008. Epub 2013 Nov 16.

Kuboyama T1, Tohda C, Komatsu K. Effects of Ashwagandha (roots of Withania somnifera) on neurodegenerative diseases. Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(6):892-7

Mishra LC1, Singh BB, Dagenais S. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Aug;5(4):334-46.

Pase MP1, Kean J, Sarris J, Neale C, Scholey AB, Stough C. The cognitive-enhancing effects of Bacopa monnieri: a systematic review of randomized, controlled human clinical trials. J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Jul;18(7):647-52. doi: 10.1089/acm.2011.0367. Epub 2012 Jul 2.

Rai D1, Bhatia G, Palit G, Pal R, Singh S, Singh HK. Adaptogenic effect of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi). Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Jul;75(4):823-30.

Simpson T1, Pase M2, Stough C1. Bacopa monnieri as an Antioxidant Therapy to Reduce Oxidative Stress in the Aging Brain. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:615384. doi: 10.1155/2015/615384. Epub 2015 Aug 27.

Singh N1, Bhalla M, de Jager P, Gilca M. An overview on ashwagandha: a Rasayana (rejuvenator) of Ayurveda. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011;8(5 Suppl):208-13. doi: 10.4314/ajtcam.v8i5S.9. Epub 2011 Jul 3.

Ven Murthy MR1, Ranjekar PK, Ramassamy C, Deshpande M. Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: ashwagandha. Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. 2010 Sep 1;10(3):238-46.


Last updated on 24th February 2022 by cytoffice


32 thoughts on “The beneficial effects of Ashwagandha and Bacopa

  1. Thank you for this article, complex for me but it seems that I could add this Ayurvedic plant to the Ashwagandha and Guggulu for Hypothyroidism. I was prescribed levothyroxine, I didn’t take it and went for those two supplements and quite a few more. I recovered two third after a couple of months, but I want to optimise my chances for full recovery. Would you recommend Bacopa also for Hashimoto?

    1. Hi Marie,

      Thanks for commenting. I would be cautious to recommend with knowing more about you and your health. Most particularly because Hashimoto’s can manifest as either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism and these conditions are approached very differently. We do have a Health Questionnaire service which is offered free of charge. If you were able to complete this form, downloadable from our website, we can advise you individually based on the necessary information which the form will collect and this is important for efficacy and also safety.

      All the best,

    1. Hi Helen,

      Thanks for your comment. I think it depends on the reason that you are using it. As a whole herb our product is slightly different from a standardised extract , which is more targeted and used acutely. Whole herbs can safely be taken long term – but it is always good to understand their physiological action and that it is right for you.

      Best regards,

  2. I’ve had Hashimotos for 12 years and in recent years suffering from a lot more symptoms of fatigue and brain fog. Lots of stress in previous 2 years which has no doubt excacerbated this. I had a chat with an NT at Cytoplan who recommended I take Ashwaganda. The improvement in my cognitive function was almost instant and up until the last 4-6 weeks I had been taking it for 4 months. However, I was concerned after reading an article that said taking this could actually make the HT worse, even though initially it would appear to show some improvement in symptoms. I stopped taking it. Result is symptoms have returned, but seem much worse. This may be because the return of symptoms is sudden rather than gradual so I’ve noticed it!

    I’m really wanting my brain back and wondering if supporting my adrenals has masked the fact that I am likely very deficient in iron and possibly other nutrients (blood test results next week). It’s all so very complicated. Any thoughts?

    1. Dear Sue,

      Thank you for your query. The adrenal glands and the thyroid have a very close relationship. When the thyroid is under functioning this can have an effect on the adrenal glands and vice versa. It is always important to consider each individual persons nutritional needs and not just one aspect of their health. We would always recommend bridging the nutrition gap i.e. ensuring that intake of all nutrients are at optimum (we offer a health questionnaire service which can help ascertain this for you). With regards to Ashwagandha and thyroid function, apart from a single case study 12 years ago, all research indicates that Ashwagandha can improve thyroid function, as recent Double-blind Randomised Control Trial ascertained the safety and efficacy of Ashwagandha and thyroid function ( Therefore current research demonstrates Ashwagandha is beneficial for thyroid health. However it is important to provide the thyroid with nutrients it requires including zinc, selenium, iodine a tyrosine as well as considering other nutritional deficiencies.

      All the best,

      1. Thank you Amanda, that’s really useful. I’m discovering more day by day… My holistic journey has brought me to Naturopathy and I’m now exploring all kinds of ways to address this. I start studying in November at CNM and thinking of adopting P-K diet. Sue

  3. please advise would it be better to the separate high potency tablets or Kapikacchu Plus which includes both but at a much lower dosage?

    1. Hi Richard,

      Thanks for your question – I will reply to you by email as I need to understand a little more about your health concerns.

      Best regards,

    1. Hi Manjeet,
      Yes you can take both herbs together providing you follow the recommended intakes given for each product. We do in fact have a product called Kapikacchu Plus which combines Ashwagandha, Bacopa and Kapikacchu in one capsule.
      Best wishes,

  4. Hi, i am suffering from psychosis. I would like to improve the memory and mental health. I want to take capsules of ashwagandha and brahmi together. What dosage do you recommend ?

    1. Hi Nerijus,
      Thank you for your question on our blog. In order to be able to answer you better, it would be useful if you could email me with some more information on your health history and any medications / supplements you are taking. You can email me at
      Best wishes,

  5. Our grandson 20 yrs has suffered with anxiety and depression for several years. Turned to alcohol for relieve. Is now living with us trying to get a new start. He has seen a Dr who gave him meds he refuses to take because of side effects. (He has been on others that haven’t worked )
    He is working in a factory 4 months now. This is were his anxiety is at its worse. He is not taking any meds of any kind.
    What would you recommend?

    1. Hi Peggy,

      Thank you for getting in touch. To really help your grandson we need to understand things in more detail, but to avoid his personal information being shared on a public platform, please can you ask him to either call Jackie, our in-house nutritional therapist, from 9-1 weekdays on 01684 310099 or email Alternatively, he could complete a health questionnaire (download here).

      It is important for us to understand things properly and to be able to work with him for best outcomes. I hope this helps.


  6. My adult daughter has attention deficit, social anxiety and depression. She is taking Laxapro and Concerta. She seems to have improvement in her energy after taking Ashwagandha. Is it good to let her also try to take Bacopa?

  7. I am in my early 70’s experiencing loss of simple words that I can see in my mind but cannot express. I have continued to experience increased joint pain, stress, terrible sleep patterns: waking 3-4 times a night, as well as continued hot flashes, since the passing of my husband in 2012 from dementia after 6 years as caretaker; then the passing of my mother this past January at 104 years after 11 years as caretaker.
    I had a hysterectomy years ago, gall bladder removed, degenerative disc in my lower back and neuroma in my right foot. Lately I have what feels like sciatic pain, but running from my neck through my right shoulder, running down through my arm and elbow. My neck is pretty tight. I see a Chiropractor regularly. It helps minimally.
    I have been on several supplements after a Live Cell Consultation & Iridology. After 3 months, he says my blood looks better. But I feel no changes to my initial complaints.
    Would a combination of Ashwagandha, Bacopa Monnieri, and Gotu Kola be helpful for memory and inflammation, which I suspect may be the culprit for my symptoms?
    This sounds bad, but other than the pain, I have been able to function quite well through the other.

    1. Hi Joanne,

      Thank you for your query. There is evidence to demonstrate that ashwagandha, bacopa as well as gotu kola support cognitive function as well as modulating the stress response and reducing neuroinflammation. Therefore it would be useful to try this and they can be taken together. Here is a link to a smoothie recipe which incorporates all of these.
      It may additionally be useful to complete one of our health questionnaires which can give more targeted advice – see link here.


    1. Hi Bill – not that I am aware of and certainly not from the physiological action of either of these products. But as they do help reduce anxiety and stress by virtue of being more relaxed and less stressed that aspect might promote weight gain in susceptible individuals. Thanks, Amanda

  8. It was hard to believe that Ashwagandha could be this good tasting. This one tastes amazing! It’s not as strong as other brands. It tastes almost like good. It’s natural to keep thinking about things in order to better understand stressful situations and improve them, but some individuals get obsessed, therefore I recommend gummies to relieve tension and get a decent night’s sleep.

  9. Hello
    can these supplements be taken by a 17 yo bipolar girl who is very stressed about her A-levels? she is on Lorazedone.

    many thanks, RCS

  10. Hi,

    I have been using Ashwagandha and bacopa separately for quite sometime. Both made me demotivated and lethargic but I had profound memory benefits from Bacopa.

    My questions are: Does their benefit for decreasing cortisol trigger demotivation and lethargy? Can I take both before bed?.


    1. Hi Khalid, while I am unaware of any mechanisms by which Bacopa could cause demotivation and lethargy, Ashwagandha can produce these effects in susceptible individuals, due to its suppressive action on the central nervous system. It might also be, in part, due to its ability to increase levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA – and as such, it can certainly support sleep if taken before bed.

  11. I have been taking Ashwaghanda for several years now. I was diagnosed with Hashimotos Hypothyroid in 2015, I also had Bell’s Palsy and to top it off, Trigeminal Neuralgia. I was given a plethora of RX that did nothing but band aid fix my multiple issues, let alone touch the pain that was caused by TN. I set out on a journey to find help where I was being failed by western medicine. Along with chiropractic help, and herbal medicine, and food medicine I have recaptured my life, including now being a farmer who grows all the healthy and delicious food I couldn’t afford at retail. I have recently added Bacopa to my regimen so this article was extremely informative and helpful. Thank you

    1. Hi Anouska, thank you for your kind feedback, and how wonderful to hear that you have taken control of your health – and are thriving!

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